Mosquitoes are the most important insect pests affecting the health of people and animals in all climatic conditions. Mosquitoes are cosmopolitan . Most of the Females of most species are ectoparasites and consume blood.. Different species feed on the blood of various kinds of hosts, mainly mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, etc.
Imporatnt Species of Mosquitoes that act as disease vectors:
- Anopheles quadrimaculatus
- Culex pipiens
- Aedes aegypti
Feeding habits and Life Cycle:
Mosquitoes go through four stages in their lifecycles: egg, larva, pupa, and adult or imago.
In most species, adult females lay their eggs in stagnant water. The female mosquito needs to have a blood meal to obtain nutrients to produce eggs. Mosquito taking a blood meal as like that of a professional physician taking blood sample. It sucks blood by puncturing its mouthparts to the skin, injects a small amount of saliva into the wound and feeds on blood. The saliva makes penetration easier and prevents the blood from clotting during feeding. Male mosquitoes feed only on nectar, plant juice and liquid carbohydrate and they die shortly after mating. However, females feed blood meal and will live for about a week to month. Some species live up to 6 months.
Diseases spread by Mosquitoes:
Mosquitoes can act as vectors for many disease-causing viruses and parasites. Infected mosquitoes carry these organisms from person to person without exhibiting symptoms themselves.
Mosquito-borne diseases include:
- Viral diseases, such as yellow fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya, transmitted mostly by Aedes aegypti.
- The parasitic diseases collectively called malaria, caused by Plasmodium, carried by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles
- Lymphatic filariasis (the main cause of elephantiasis) which can be spread by a wide variety of mosquito species
- West Nile virus
- Eastern equine encephalitis virus
- Ross River Fever
- Japanese Encephalitis
- La Crosse Encephalitis
- St.Louis Encephalitis
- Western Equine Encephalitis
Thus mosquitoes are the deadliset of all pests.
The visible, irritating bites of mosquitoes are due to an immune response Reactions result in itching, redness and swelling.
IPM Techniques For Mosquitoes:
Effective mosquito control program includes:
- Proper sanitation (removing food, water, and shelter),
- Habitat disruption,
- Biological control,
- Mechanical control,
- Chemical control.
SIPC offers IPM package for controlling mosquitoes.
Outside Building: – Common Areas, Gardens, Basement, Car parking etc.,
Lake Areas –Bacillus thuringiensis Bactericide chemical Spray applied periodically or Bayer Deltacide.
Application of D-Tetramethrin-4.4% + Cyphenothrin-13.3% Spray in Drainages, Dirty Water Stagnant areas.
- SIPC –Mosquito Wipe Out (Malthion)Residual Spray
- SIPC Mosquito Repellent Pots
- Thermal Fogging
Indoor -Treatment Techniques
Adult Control :
- Starycide SC 480Triflumuron-39.40%SC residual Spray application on walls.
- Mist Fogging
- Non –Smoke SIPC Mosquito Repellents Pots
- Mechanical Traps
- Thus, treatment is done in all rooms and also in the breeding sources like drainage openings, channels, water stagnations, etc which are nearby to the premises.
- Disinfestations spray and chemicals used are odourless and harmless to human being, safe and most efficient.
- Gum traps will also be placed based on requirement.
- The fogging treatments will be applied based on requirement as and when needed and it can be applied during working days without disturbance.